Archons of Athens
The Archons of Athens were the supreme council of the Athenian Republic during the Classical Age. There were nine Archons, this list details the chief archon (and hence the constitutional Head-of-State of the Republic). His duties were to act as chief executive, chief justiciar, and president of both the Boule (Council) and Ecclesia (popular assembly). As Archon Eponymous, his name was applied to the year of his office. His colleagues were: the Polemarch, who was the senior military commander and chief judicial authority in cases involving foreigners - the Basileus ("King", what remained of the monarchy after the establishment of the Republic), the chief religious officer and president of the Areopagus (Council of Nobles) - and finally six Thesmotetai, ("Determiners of Custom"), a group of general legal authorities. Over time, the power of the Archons waned - the Polemarch lost control of the army to the ten tribal Strategoi in 501 BCE, and the others suffered a similar winnowing away of real function, as the nature and circumstances of the Athenian state shifted. Nevertheless, the office endured into the Common Era, as a ceremonial figurehead if nothing else.

This list records each year in serial fashion, followed by the Archon Eponymous who served in that year. Note that in three years (411 BCE,  406 BCE, 108 CE) the original Archon died, and was replaced by another. It is admittedly very incomplete, but hopefully should retain some value - I intend to expand it as I develop new sources. The numbers in brown font following certain names are Olympiad cycles, a common dating practice in late Classic times. As a chronological device, bear in mind that the Athenian calendar began in very late Spring, so the year in office recorded is from about June of the common year to June of the next.

The symbol --- indicates missing portions of names. Some names are partially or completely within brackets [], indicating dubious or unclear portions of names.

See also Roman Consuls

I have no further data concerning the Archonate beyond 275 at this time. Athens itself continued to hold a primary position among Greek cities until the closing of the Academies by Justinian in 529 CE. Thereupon it sank to the level of a market town, and it's splendid architecture began to slowly decay. Captured by Western Crusaders in 1204 and Ottoman Turks in 1456, it became even further marginalized. During the War of Independence in the 1820's it was evacuated completely, and in the beginning of the 1830's there were only a few thousand squatters living on the north slope of the Acropolis. In 1833 however, it was chosen as the capital of the newly created Kingdom of Greece, and it's fortunes have expanded greatly since then. Today, it is an international city whose size and influence would have stunned it's ancient rulers.

Additional Archons The following are individuals known to have held the office, but whose precise term has for one reason or another become unclear. The names are followed by the best estimate for when they served.