Scattered throughout the Holy Roman Empire were urban districts holding Charters of Liberties issued by the Emperor. These quasi-republics (governed for the most part by councils and guilds, but having the Emperor as a theoretical Chief-of-State) were miniscule in area but relatively large in population and of great influence in Imperial affairs. A few of them survived the Napoleonic interruptions to retain their autonomy until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918 - two of these latter (Bremen and Hamburg) constitute small states within the Bundesrepublik to this day.
Currently this has: Aachen(Aix-la-Chapelle), Aalen, Augsburg, Biberach, Bopfingen, Bremen, Buchau, Buchhorn, Dinkelsbuhl, Dortmund, Esslingen, Frankfurt-am-Main, Friedberg, Gengenbach, Giengen, Gmund, Goslar, Hall, Hamburg, Heilbronn, Hildesheim, Isny, Kaufbeuren, Kempten, Köln (Cologne), Leutkirchen, Lindau, Lorch (Flaschenhals), Lübeck, Memmingen, Mühlhausen, Mulhouse, Nordhausen, Nördlingen, Nürnberg, Offenburg, Pfullendorf, Ravensburg, Regensburg, Reutlingen, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Rottweil, Schweinfurt, Speyer, Überlingen, Ulm, Wangen, Weil, Weissenburg-im-Nordgau, Wetzlar, Wimpfen, Windheim, Worms, Zell.
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