This page contains local Groningen estates: Groningen Province (general survey), Fivelgo, Gorecht, Groningen City, Hunsingo, Oldambt, Ommelanden, Reiderland, Westerkwartier, and Westerwolde.

Neighbouring states: Drenthe, East Frisia (Ger.), Frisia, Münster (Ger.).

GRONINGEN The present Dutch province of Groningen didn’t originate – unlike Holland, Gelre and the bishopric of Utrecht – as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lordship of Groningen was created by HR Emperor Charles V 1536 and again by the Dutch Republic 1594 (as Province of Stad and Lande) by joining the City of Groningen with a number of territories which were collectively known as the Ommelanden, once belonging to Frisia. The principality of Westerwolde was administered by the city of Groningen since 1619.

Groningen Estates

The northeastern coast of Groningen Province, extending along a section of the Lower Dollart Estuary. It included Oldambt until the 15th century. It originated in the 9th century as a Carolingian pagus.

 A terrritory now comprising the municipalities of (the city of) Groningen, Haren and Hoogezand-Sappermeer. HR Emperor Henry III granted 1040 the territories Go and (Drenther)Wold (Go and Wold collectively known as Gorecht, the present municipalities of Groningen and Haren) – with the villa Cruoninga –, the very northern part of the pagus Thrianti (Drenthe) to the Cathedral Chapter of Utrecht. To Gorecht was added 1460 ‘De Vrije van het Gorecht’, the present municipality of Hoogezand-Sappemeer.

GRONINGEN (the city)
 A city (‘The city’) in the northeast of the Netherlands. It came into being as a village situated in the territory of Gorecht, which belonged originally to the Carolingian pagus Triantha (Drente). Gorecht was granted in 1040 by HR Emperor Henry III to the Church of Utrecht. The village Groningen broke gradually away from Gorecht and developed itself into a more or less free city, a status comparable (but not quite identical) with the Freie und Reichsstädte of the Holy Roman Empire. The city annexed the territories of Gorecht and ‘De Vrije van het Gorecht’ (1460) and Oldambt (betw. 1440/third quarter of 15th century). The Ommelanden were a protectorate of the city 1428/34-1498. The city was unified by the Hapsburgs and later by the Dutch Republic with the Ommelanden 1536-1795 (interrupted 1580-1594). Westerwolde was attached 1619-1795. Groningen-City became the capital of the present province of Groningen in 1814.

The coastal districts of Groningen Province extending from the Lauwers Zee in the northwest to the edge of the Dollart Estuary to the east. It originated in the 9th century as a Carolingian pagus.

East-central Groningen Province, extending from the Upper Dollart Estuary (and thus being the extreme northeastern corner of the Netherlands) to the southwest, across the Province.
A territory in the eastern part of the present province of Groningen. It was originally the southeastern subregion of the territory of Fivelgo. The city of Groningen annexed Oldambt in the period 1440-betw. 1454/73. It became a lordship in 1649, but remained under the direct rule (‘suppression’) of the city until 1795. Oldambt consisted of two regions, Klei-Oldambt and Wold-Oldamt

The overall term for what eventually became Groningen Province, exclusive of Groningen City itself. It's constituent territories were (from west to east) Westerkwartier (a common name for four very small districts), Hunsingo and Fivelgo. Fivelgo once included Oldambt, which later became a dependency of the city of Groningen. Reiderland is here reckoned to the Ommelanden because of its geographical position. The name Ommelanden means ‘Lands surrounding (Dutch: om) the (North)sea’. They belonged originally to Frisia (the ‘Frisian Sealands’) but lost their Frisian character and Frisian language during late medieval times.
Formation of the Carolingian pagi Hunsingo, Fivelgo, Humsterland, Vredewold, Langewold and Middacht (these last four pagi under the common name of Westerkwartier) 9th century.

A territory on both sides of the very northern section of the present German-Dutch border, on the west bank of the Ems River. It was reckoned to the Seven Frisian Seelands and came into being c. 1000. Its northern section was a clay area, which was largely destroyed by the sea during the 15th and 16th century, becoming the Dollard Bay (partly reclaimed during the 17th-20th century). The southern section was a peaty area, limited to the south by Westerwolde.

 The western part of the present province of Groningen, a bulge of territory lying to the south-southeast of the Lauwers Zee. In medieval times the name was used as an umbrella term for four small territories which came into being c. 1000, formally belonging to Frisia but actually independent. These territories were Vredewold, Langewold, Humsterland (mentioned 786/7 as pagus Hugumarchi), and Middag (partitioned off from Hunsingo), merged into the region of Westerkwartier by the Hapsburg Lords of the Netherlands 1536, becoming a part of the Ommelanden.

WESTERWOLDE, and the Castle of WEDDE The southeastern part of the present province of Groningen. After the disappearance (1530) of the Addingas, the local dynasty which ruled Westerwolde,  the territory was administered by an official – the bailiff – of its overlords until 1795.. Westerwolde is an isolated territory located between vast peat bogs (the Bourtanger Moor forms the German frontier just to the east) - now almost completely cut and reclaimed - bordering the small rivers Mussel A and Ruiten A, which flow together to the Dollard Estuary as Westerwoldse A. Wedde Castle itself is some 26 miles (42 km.) east-southeast of Groningen, about 4½ miles (7¼ km.) from the German frontier.