South America

The fourth largest continent, South America has long been dominated by Latin influences, and is today the home of a number of republics. Nevertheless, it is the cradle of a large and important pre-Columbian Empire, the Inca; and even in the relatively recent past has been the host of a large and fairly stable empire of European foundation: Brazil.

Presently this covers: Acre, Araucania, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Chile, Chimu, Colombia, Counani, Demerara-Essequibo, Ecuador, Entre Rios, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guayaquil, Guyana, Inca, Maranhão, Paraguay, Palmares, Pernambuco, Peru, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Suriname, Tucumán, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Willoughby Colony.


ACRE A large swath of jungle in the Upper Amazon Basin, bordering parts of Peru and Bolivia.

ARAUCANIA A region in southern Chile, inhabited by a native people of the same name. The Araucan Indians successfully resisted Spanish attempts to conquer them, and in fact were a notable threat to both the Colony of Chile and later the Republic. In the 19th century an ephemeral Aracaunian Kingdom was set up, but even after it's annexation to Chile the Araucans retained a viable culture.

ARGENTINAThe wide expanse east of the Andes, encompassing the southeastern quarter of the continent.

BOLIVIAThe interior, north of Argentina and southeast of Peru.

BRAZILAn immense nation taking up much of South America, the 5th largest on Earth in terms of sheer size. The modern nation began as several settlements of Portuguese colonists along the coast, and has expanded slowly inward since then. Some parts of the Amazon River basin have only been explored within the last 50 years or so. During much of the 19th century, Brazil was an Empire.

BUENOS AIRES A city and district on the Río de la Plata, in northern Argentina. It has nearly always been the largest and most important Argentine city, and has normally served as the capital during periods of national unity.

CHILE The very long, narrow strip of territory west of the Andes, in the southwest of the continent.

COLOMBIAThe exceedingly mountainous region of the far northern portion of the continent.

COUNANI A region located between French Guiana to the northwest and the northern edge of the Amazon delta to the southeast, currently the Brazilian State of Amapá. In the 19th century it was a disputed territory, pitting French versus Brazilian interests against each other. In 1886 a pro-French state was organized, provoking strong resistance from Brazil, and the formation some years later of a pro-Brazilian state. The second attempt was followed by outright hostlities, leading to eventual arbitrage by Switzerland, which awarded the province to Brazil.

DEMERARA-ESSEQUIBO Two colonies located on the Guiana coast.

ECUADOROn the northwest coast of the continent.

ENTRE RIOS A Province of Argentina, lying on the west bank of the La Plata River, adjacent to Uruguay on the east bank, and just north of Buenos Aires Province. During the era of disunity in the first half of the 19th century, Entre Rios was autonomous, and briefly an independent Republic.

FALKLAND ISLANDS An island group about 300 miles (480 km.) east of Argentina, in the South Atlantic.

FRENCH GUIANAOn the north coast of the continent.

GUAYAQUIL A district in southern Colombia, briefly independent during the revolutions of the early 19th century.

GUYANAOn the north coast of the continent.

MARANHÃO A Brazilian State in the north, located on the coast between the Gurupi and Parnaiba Rivers.

PALMARES On the coast of the easternmost bulge of Brazil, about 50 miles (80 km.) south of Recife. A kingdom estabished by Maroons (runaway slaves).

PARAGUAYOriginally the entire Rio Plata basin, in modern times the term has been restricted to the interior state southeast of Bolivia, southwest of Brazil, and north of Argentina.

PERNAMBUCO A province in eastern Brazil, running from the sea to the inland plateau; the chief city is Recife (Mauritzstad during the Dutch occupation). The inhabitants, especially the inlanders, have a reputation for truculence and lawlessness.

PERU The west coast of the continent, between Colombia and Chile.

RIO GRANDE do SUL The far southern extremity of Brazil, with the Atlantic coast to the east, Uruguay to the south, and Argentina to the west. The province was briefly independent in the first half of the 19th century. The region was much disputed between Spain and Portugal in the 18th century.

RIO de JANEIRO Onetime capital and still the second-largest city in Brazil (after Sao Paulo) - it remains the cultural center of the nation - Rio is a major international city set on an extraordinarily beautiful coastline.

SANTA CATARINA A State of Brazil in the far south, bordering on the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul to it's south - the capital at Florianópolis is about 350 miles (560 km.) southwest of Rio de Janeiro.

SURINAME On the north coast of the continent.

TUCUMÁN A small Argentinian province in the northwest, on the edge of the Andes. During the era of disunity in the first half of the 18th century, Tucumán, like most other Argentiunian provinces, was de facto autonomous. In 1820-1, it hosted an ephemeral Republic.

URUGUAYAcross the Plata River estuary from Argentina.

VENEZUELA The northernmost quarter of the continent, opposite the Caribbean.